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Insider S Guide To Trading The World S Stock Markets_1

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  1. 11 they represent, even if it means risking their own capital to bridge what they hope are temporary gaps in the market. There are three ways in which you can place a market order. • You could place an order through your broker on the Internet or by phone. Your broker then sends your order to the NYSE floor where a floor broker who represents your broker approaches the specialist with your order. The price of your order will be confirmed through your broker. • Once your broker receives your order, he/she could submit your order through a SuperDot machine, which is a computerized system that sends your order directly to the specialist. From there your order is fulfilled at the exact price and number of shares and sent back to your broker, who then informs you of the news. • Skip the broker and place the order yourself on a level II order entry software system that contains a superDOT button for order execution. Send the order directly to the specialist and wait a minute or two for a response. www.clickevents.co.uk
  2. 12 NASDAQ The ownership of stock is traded very differently in the NASDAQ market than in the NYSE. First of all, the NASDAQ is a negotiated market where buyers and sellers fiercely compete for the best prices. Second, there are no specialists on the floor maintaining orders and acting as auctioneers. Therefore, all the transactions are based on a system where bids and offers are extended or posted on an electronic system. Third, most of the participating companies are newly formed businesses and evolving technology companies that lack a long history as proof of sustained business practices. This widely known fact is what makes the NASDAQ market so volatile and speculative. The NASDAQ is comprised of levels one and two. The first level is considered the basic inside market. This area has the best current buying and selling prices and is used by stockbrokers and online investors who are committed to longer-term stocks. Level two is where the daily action happens, and where professional day traders at the NASDAQ spend most of their time. Since level two is most important to the day trader, the next section is completely devoted to the NASDAQ Level Two System. NASDAQ Level II Trading in the NASDAQ market is definitely more complicated than in the NYSE, especially at level two. The Specialists and SuperDOT machine make ordering systems seem very simple compared to the various order routing systems of the NASDAQ, such as SOES, SelectNet, and ECNs, which will be explained in greater detail later. Part of this complication comes from the many changes and upgrades over the last three decades since its creation. For instance, until October 30, 1998 the NASDAQ Stock Market and the American www.clickevents.co.uk
  3. 13 Exchange Stock Market were two separate markets. Now that they have been combined as one market – the Amex Market Group, although they still operate very differently. Think of the NYSE as a socialist system and the NASDAQ as more of a democracy. That doesn’t mean you are better off trading at the NASDAQ. In fact, if just starting out, you would be better off getting your feet wet at the NYSE first. Your losses are likely to be less, giving you time to adjust and learn as you gain experience. The NASDAQ is too much of a roller coaster for beginners and even some intermediates. At least when you’re riding a roller coaster you can see where the track is leading. NASDAQ doesn’t even give you the courtesy of that advantage. Where the NYSE has specialists maintaining a certain amount of control over the stocks they represent, the NASDAQ has what are known as market makers. Again, the difference between the two is very significant. For example, several market makers are allowed to participate in NASDAQ stocks at any given time and they generally represent stocks to the public. Market makers are also referred to as dealers. They actively compete with one another to provide the best possible prices to the public. Therefore, the act of representation brings a certain vulnerability to the public in regard to pricing and lack of personal access to certain information. The National Association of Securities Dealers (NASD) operates the computer-based stock exchange and all electronic transactions from Trumbull, Connecticut. Because of the power market makers have over the public, the NASD goes to great lengths in the prevention of price fixing, and imposes heavy fines for any such known or discovered violations. According to NASD rules, market makers must provide the following: www.clickevents.co.uk
  4. 14 1) A liquid market in which there is a constant buying or bid price, and overtly a selling or asking price. 2) Execute customer orders of both large and small investors. 3) Trades for their own accounts in utilizing their experience to keep the market rolling. Many day traders think of market makers as their professional enemy when caught up in the whirlwind of things. In reality, market makers are a huge part of the over all scheme of things. They are a great resource in the business if you are open-minded enough to observe their actions and gauge the weaknesses and strengths of their strategies. As a trader on the NASDAQ, you can buy and sell stocks in one of two ways: • Place an order with your broker via phone or Internet. Your broker will send your order to the market maker to fulfill the order. Your broker then informs you of the completed order. • Bypass the broker all together and place your order through a sophisticated online system where you can click the Buy button. No waiting for confirmation is necessary. Either you see your order fulfilled immediately or it slips in line as an ECN order along with all the others, including the market maker orders. At this point it might be helpful to know more about an ECN order, or otherwise known as Electronic Communication Networks. The development of ECNs in the NASDAQ trading system practically revolutionized the system from its earlier days. It has enabled individual investors and small institutions the ability to manually post bids and offers directly into the market. This has greatly improved the overall liquidity of stocks, increased competition, and effectively www.clickevents.co.uk
  5. 15 lowered prices. Since then it has become apparent that most prices posted by ECNs are generally more competitive than those posted by market makers. Although, ECNs are becoming increasingly popular with each year, they still do not provide the responsibility of liquidating stock as market makers do. Therefore, fewer orders are processed through ECNs than through market makers. The value of the ECN is the fact that it is convenient for people to communicate buying and selling agreements through an electronic system that doesn’t require them to leave their office, is fast in processing transactions, and easy to perform. NASDAQ Level II Definitions When you first look at a NASDAQ Level II online screen or other reports, you might feel you need a decoder reference or at least a translator. There are several symbols and abbreviations that mean different things. The colorful image to the right is an actual screenshot NASDAQ Level II Screenshot www.clickevents.co.uk
  6. 16 of Level II. The list of definitions below, are intended as a quick cross-reference to help you decipher the meaning of some of the listed abbreviations. Please realize that this table only includes the necessary basics and not all abbreviations are included. www.clickevents.co.uk
  7. 17 Abbreviation Definition C Yesterday’s closing price O Today’s opening price H Today’s highest price traded L Today’s lowest price traded Status (+ or -) since the last trade compared to S yesterday’s close Number of market makers or ECNs at the inside bid vs. R inside ask V Number of shares traded since opening BID List of buyers with ID, price posted, and size ASK or OFFER List of sellers with ID, price posted, and size INSIDE BID Best current buying price INSIDE ASK Best current selling price Actual transactions report. Even though all trades are TIME & SALES immediately reported, this column sometimes reflects delays MM/ECN ID Abbreviations representing market maker or ECN Price posting, in which prices are generally rounded up. PRICE Some software may reflect non-rounded numbers. SIZE Order size, usually quoted in 100 share multiples. Market makers or Dealers representing NASDAQ firms, holding inventory, executing orders for customers, trades, MM and even their own accounts. Also, consists of brokerage houses & wholesale brokerages. Electronic Communication Networks that are privately ECN operating to facilitate market bids & offers directly into the NASDAQ, and are not required to create markets. www.clickevents.co.uk
  8. 18 European NASDAQ The European NASDAQ is a European Trading System (ETS) that operates around a market maker system as in the U.S., but it is further customized to European practices to accommodate the international market. ETS is a sophisticated state-of-the-art trading platform on a fully automated technology system with the ability to support nearly 2.5 million daily trades. One of the intended roles of ETS is to drive down the large costs of cross-border trading. The range of securities that are available through the European NASDAQ includes the Listed Financial Instruments and the Traded Financial Instruments. The market makers are required to maintain quotes in registered securities for the trading day. The following rules must apply for each quotation: • The quotation should be entered in the currency of the security • Offer the Minimum Quotation Size (MQS) for that security on both the buy and sell sides of the quote • Entered in a principal capacity • Represent trading prices for standard agreements LSE The LSE is the UK’s main stock market as well as the world’s leading exchange for international businesses worldwide. The LSE is a historical market dating back over 200 years to its initiation. Traditionally, it operated as a floor- based exchange system until it became the first major exchange to implement screen-based trading. Innovation and flexibility eventually propelled the market www.clickevents.co.uk
  9. 19 from face-to-face trading to a quote-based system of trade on an electronic bulletin board known as the Stock Exchange Automated Quotations (SEAQ). In 1997, the LSE leaped forward again when it instituted a new fully electronic, automated trading system that significantly changed the market’s functionality. In addition to simply providing a composite for price distribution and other necessary information for trade reporting, it now provided execution processes by matching up buy and sell orders. The new system reduced transaction costs and helped to narrow the spread between buy and sell prices, including attracting new businesses and greatly increased cross-border stock trading. The LSE is made up of two market segments known as AIM and techMARK. The AIM market was instituted in 1995 for the specially tailored needs of growing businesses worldwide. This market provides a medium for investors who believe in the potential growth of new companies. It has proven as a significant vehicle for growth and realized potential as the total combined capitalization of AIM companies was up to £13.3 billion in April 2001. The market’s flexibility has made it a marketable, attractive listing investment for a wide range of companies around the world from young to financially backed businesses even with long-term operating practices. Companies of all industries are involved in the AIM market from innovative technology based firms to distribution and leisure FTSE AIM Chart from the LSE Web site. businesses. www.clickevents.co.uk
  10. 20 The techMARK market was launched in 1999 to meet the needs of innovative technology businesses as they embark on the routes of new challenges and untried technologies. All the member companies of techMARK have similar goals and a common commitment to the technical industry. Even though many of the techMARK member companies range from various industries, the predominant industry of this market are businesses in software development and computer services, including biotechnology, Internet, semiconductors and fiber optics. Information for techMARK includes statistics on daily trading, index values, business sectors, and market capitalization through numerous charts, and FTSE approved indices. It would be interesting to note as of July 2001, techMARK had a market capitalization at £453.3. The LSE also provides a landMARK service that highlights the potential of quoted companies in all areas of the UK. Access is given to detailed information regarding the local landmarked areas of England in the North West, South East, South West, North East, London, and Yorkshire, including East Anglia, Midlands, Wales, Ireland and Scotland. The extraMARK services provided by the LSE were designed for investment firms to provide unique business opportunities. The focus is on attractive portfolios for investors of varying sizes with innovative development and trading capabilities. The first product launched from FTSE techMARK Chart from the LSE Web site. extraMARK were Exchange Traded Funds (ETF), which integrate the www.clickevents.co.uk

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