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Thực hiện phân phối sản phẩm công bằng ở Việt Nam hiện nay: Thực trạng và giải pháp

Phân phối sản phẩm công bằng vừa là mục tiêu, vừa là động lực trong quá trình xây dựng chủ nghĩa xã hội. Theo quan điểm của các nhà kinh điển của chủ nghĩa Mác - Lênin, để đảm bảo sự công bằng trong phân phối sản phẩm thì cần phải thực hiện nguyên tắc phân phối theo lao động. Mời các bạn tham khảo!


Convergence of estimated optimal inventory levels in models with probabilistic demands

The behavior of estimations of the optimal inventory level is analyzed. Two models are studied. The demands follow unknown probability distribution function. The included density functions are estimated and a plug-in rule is suggested for computing estimates of the optimal levels. Two search algorithms are proposed and compared using Monte Carlo experiments.


Long-step homogeneous interior point algorithm for the P* -nonlinear complementarity problems

A P*-Nonlinear Complementarity Problem as a generalization of the P*-Linear Complementarity Problem is considered. We show that the long-step version of the homogeneous self-dual interior-point algorithm could be used to solve such a problem.


Deterministic inventory model for items with time varying demand, weibull distribution deterioration and shortages

In this paper, an EOQ inventory model is depleted not only by time varying demand but also by Weibull distribution deterioration, in which the inventory is permitted to start with shortages and end without shortages. A theory is developed to obtain the optimal solution of the problem; it is then illustrated with the aid of several numerical examples.


An expert system for ranking companies and investments: Wood industry case

The evaluation and ranking of Greek wood companies based on actual financial data is a very complicated task and it requires expertise knowledge and skills. On the other hand a computer expert system can perform validation and evaluation in an efficient way and can substitute human experts. An expert system was designed and developed towards this direction.


An inventory model for deteriorating items with exponential declining demand and partial backlogging

This study proposes an EOQ inventory mathematical model for deteriorating items with exponentially decreasing demand. In the model, the shortages are allowed and partially backordered. The backlogging rate is variable and dependent on the waiting time for the next replenishment. Further, we show that the minimized objective cost function is jointly convex and derive the optimal solution. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the model and the sensitivity analysis is also studied.


On the single-server retrial queue

In this work, we review the stochastic decomposition for the number of customers in M/G/1 retrial queues with reliable server and server subjected to breakdowns which has been the subject of investigation in the literature. Using the decomposition property of M/G/1 retrial queues with breakdowns that holds under exponential assumption for retrial times as an approximation in the non-exponential case, we consider an approximate solution for the steady-state queue size distribution.


A production inventory model with deteriorating items and shortages

A continuous production control inventory model for deteriorating items with shortages is developed. A number of structural properties of the inventory system are studied analytically. The formulae for the optimal average system cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time are derived when the deterioration rate is very small. Numerical examples are taken to illustrate the procedure of finding the optimal total inventory cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time.


Approximation results toward nearest neighbor heuristic

In this paper, we revisit the famous heuristic called nearest neighbor (N N) for the traveling salesman problem under maximization and minimization goal. We deal with variants where the edge costs belong to interval [a;ta] for a>0 and t>1, which certainly corresponds to practical cases of these problems.


Further notes on convergence of the weiszfeld algorithm

The Fermat-Weber problem is one of the most widely studied problems in classical location theory. In his previous work, Brimberg (1995) attempts to resolve a conjecture posed by Chandrasekaran and Tamir (1989) on a convergence property of the Weiszfeld algorithm, a well-known iterative procedure used to solve this problem.


Phân tích kinh tế học pháp luật đối với hành vi kỳ thị giá và đề xuất hoàn thiện Luật Cạnh tranh 2004

Kỳ thị giá là một dạng phổ biến của hành vi phân biệt đối xử trong giao dịch. Về mặt kinh tế học, hành vi kỳ thị giá không phải luôn mang lại hậu quả bất lợi cho xã hội, ngược lại, trong nhiều trường hợp chủ thể kinh doanh thực hiện hành vi kỳ thị giá vì mục tiêu chiết khấu chức năng hoặc nhằm tối đa hóa tổng thặng dư xã hội. Trên cơ sở phân tích bản chất kinh tế của hành vi kỳ thị giá, bài viết này đưa ra đề xuất hoàn thiện quy định của Luật Cạnh tranh về phân biệt đối xử trong kinh doanh.


Một số phương thức thương mại hóa và chuyển giao sản phẩm KH&CN của các trường đại học trên thế giới và gợi ý cho Việt Nam

Bài báo trình bày một số phương thức cơ bản để TMH&CG sản phẩm khoa học và công nghệ (KH&CN) của các trường đại học trên thế giới và Việt Nam. Trên cơ sở đó đề xuất một số giải pháp mang tính gợi ý về phát triển mô hình TMH&CG phù hợp với điều kiện Việt Nam.


Impact of defective items on (Q,r,L) inventory model involving controllable setup cost

In a recent paper, Ouyang et al. proposed a (Q,r,L) inventory model,with defective items in an arrival lot. The purpose of this study is to generalize Ouyang et al.’s model by allowing setup cost (A) as a decision variable in conjunction withorder quantity (Q), reorder point (r) and lead time (L). In this study, we first assumethat the lead time demand follows a normal distribution, and then relax this assumption by only assuming that the first two moments of the lead time demand are given. For each case, an algorithm procedure of finding the optimal solution is developed.


The multicriteria method for environmentally oriented business decision-making

Stimulated by the expressed managers’ need for some completed methods for environmental management in enterprises, we present the method for environmentally oriented business decision-making. It is based on simulations where optimization models of business processes are used as scenarios. The possibilities for an integrated approach to environmental protection are introduced and – decomposed according to the type of the considered element by using zero-one variables – included in the optimization models.


Data warehousing and data mining - a case study

This paper shows design and implementation of data warehouse as well as the use of data mining algorithms for the purpose of knowledge discovery as the basic resource of adequate business decision making process. The project is realized for the needs of Student's Service Department of the Faculty of Organizational Sciences (FOS), University of Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro. This system represents a good base for analysis and predictions in the following time period for the purpose of quality business decision-making by top management.


Neuro-fuzzy modeling in bankruptcy prediction

This paper investigates an alternative modeling of the system (firm), combining neural networks and fuzzy controllers, i.e. using neuro-fuzzy models. Classical modeling is based on mathematical models that describe the behavior of the firm under consideration. The main idea of fuzzy control, on the other hand, is to build a model of a human control expert who is capable of controlling the process without thinking in a mathematical model.


Fuzzy multi-criteria approach to ordering policy ranking in a supply chain

In this paper, a new fuzzy multi-criteria mathematical model for the selection of the best among a finite number of ordering policy of raw material in a supply chain is developed. The problem treated is a part of the purchasing plan of a company in an uncertain environment and it is very common in business practice. Optimization criteria selected describe the performance measures of ordering policies and generally their relative importance is different. It is assumed that the values of the optimization criteria are vague and imprecise.


Production inventory policy under a discounted cash flow

This paper presents an extended production inventory model in which the production rate at any instant depends on the demand and the inventory level. The effects of the time value of money are incorporated into the model. The demand rate is a linear function of time for the scheduling period. The proposed model can assist managers in economically controlling production systems under the condition of considering a discounted cash flow.


A separable approximation dynamic programming algorithm for economic dispatch with transmission losses

The standard way to solve the static economic dispatch problem with transmission losses is the penalty factor method. The problem is solved iteratively by a Lagrange multiplier method or by dynamic programming, using values obtained at one iteration to compute penalty factors for the next until stability is attained. A new iterative method is proposed for the case where transmission losses are represented by a quadratic formula (i.e., by the traditional B-coefficients).


Issues of the European transport policy and current state of eu funded transport research

This paper sets out the main lines of the existing EU Transport Policy, and transport research. After a brief description of the main elements of this policy, a discussion is given of its relation with transport research and the basic orientations that existed under the previous Framework Programmes for EU funded research. Then the main elements of the policy for the new (6th) Framework Program are presented.


An inventory model for deteriorating items under the condition of permissible delay in payments

In economic order quantity (EOQ) models, it is often assumed that the payment of an order is made on the receipt of items by the inventory system. In this paper, a varying rate of determination and the condition of permissible delay in payments used in conjunction with the economic order quantity model are the focus of discussion. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the proposed models.


Computing the bounds on the loss rates

We consider an example network where we compute the bounds on cell loss rates. The stochastic bounds for these loss rates using simple arguments lead to models easier to solve. We proved, using stochastic orders, that the loss rates of these easier models are really the bounds of our original model. For ill-balanced configurations these models give good estimates of loss rates.


On wellposedness quadratic function minimization problem on intersection of two ellipsoids

This paper deals with the existence of solutions and the conditions for the strong convergence of minimizing sequences towards the set of solutions of the quadratic function minimization problem on the intersection of two ellipsoids in Hilbert space.


An expert system for national economy model simulations

There are some fundamental economic uncertainties. We cannot forecast economic events with a very high scientific precision. It is very clear that there does not exist a unique "general" model, which can yield all answers to a wide range of macroeconomic issues. Therefore, we use several different kinds of models on segments of the macroeconomic problem.


Retailer’s replenishment policies under conditions of permissible delay in payments

The main purpose of this paper is to modify Goyal’s model to allow the unit selling price and the unit purchasing price not necessarily be equal to reflect the real-life situations. Furthermore, this paper will adopt different payment rule. We assume that the retailer uses sales revenue during the permissible credit period to make payment to the supplier at the end of the credit period.


Multi-item fuzzy inventory model for deteriorating items with finite time-horizon and time dependent demand

This paper develops a finite time-horizon fuzzy multi-deteriorating inventory model with/without shortage, where the demand increases linearly with time. Here, the total profit is to be maximized under the limitation on investment. In this problem, total profit, total investment cost and the time-horizon are fuzzy in nature. The impreciseness in the above objective and constraint goals have been expressed by fuzzy linear/nonlinear membership functions and vagueness in time-horizon by different types of fuzzy numbers. Results are illustrated with numerical examples.


Stable sets of weak tournaments

In this paper we obtain conditions on weak tournaments, which guarantee that every non-empty subset of alternatives admits a stable set. We also show that there exists a unique stable set for each non-empty subset of alternatives which coincides with its set of best elements, if and only if, the weak tournament is quasi-transitive.


On a volume flexible production policy in a family production context

A mathematical model for a volume flexible manufacturing system is developed in a family production context, assuming that there exists a dedicated production facility as well as a separate management unit for each of the items. The possibility of machine breakdowns resulting in idle times of the respective management units is taken into account. The production rates are treated as decision variables.


Chuyển đổi hệ thống quốc gia về đổi mới của Việt Nam: Nghiên cứu trường hợp của các viện nghiên cứu và triển khai công nghệ công nghiệp

Bài viết này xem xét quá trình chuyển đổi của các viện R&D CNCN (từ tổ chức chủ yếu tạo ra tri thức trở thành tổ chức trung gian, môi giới tri thức) trong bối cảnh của HTQGĐM. Sự chuyển đổi này không chỉ bao gồm năng lực học hỏi về tổ chức của các viện R&D CNCN mà còn liên quan tới năng lực học hỏi về chính sách của các cơ quan hoạch định chính sách liên quan, bởi đây là những điều kiện căn bản cho sự chuyển đổi thành công của các viện R&D CNCN.


Multi-item fuzzy inventory problem with space constraint via geometric programming method

In this paper, a multi-item inventory model with space constraint is developed in both crisp and fuzzy environment. A profit maximization inventory model is proposed here to determine the optimal values of demands and order levels of a product. Selling price and unit price are assumed to be demand-dependent and holding and set-up costs sock dependent. Total profit and warehouse space are considered to be vague and imprecise. The impreciseness in the above objective and constraint goals has been expressed by fuzzy linear membership functions.


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