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Mô tả

Tạp chí KH Nông nghiệp Việt Nam 2016, tập 14, số 6: 988-997
www.vnua.edu.vn

Vietnam J. Agri. Sci. 2016, Vol. 14, No. 6: 988-997

FINANCIAL INDICATOR SYSTEM OF BUILDING MATERIALS MANUFACTURING JOINT-STOCK
FIRMS LISTED ON HANOI STOCK EXCHANGE: SITUATION AND SOLUTIONS
Pham Xuan Kien
School of Accounting and Auditing, National Economics University, Hanoi
Email: kienpx@neu.edu.vn
Received date: 19.02.16

Accepted date: 24.06.16
ABSTRACT

Currently, all joint-stock companies (JSCs) listed on securities exchanges publish their financial ratios system.
Ministry of Finance (MOF) regulates this system both in Decision 13/2007/MOF (relating to a prospectus) and
Circular 52/2012/MOF (relating to an annual report). However, the preciseness, transparency, comprehensiveness
and objectiveness of a financial indicator system still need to be reconsidered. In other words, the current financial
indexe system has some limitations due to objective and subjective reasons. From this fact, in order to improve the
financial ratios system of JSCs listed on securities exchanges, it is necessary to indentify reasons from inside and
outside of enterprise, especially when Vietnam is integrating the regional and international economy. Therefore, this
research investigates the current financial indicator system of building materials producing JSCs which are listed on
Hanoi Stock Exchange (HNX). By doing this, this topic aims to provide the analysts with transparent, objective and
precise information and theereby assist them in making effective and optimal decisions.
Keywords: Building material manufacturing, financial indicator system, financial statements, joint-stock company,
securities market, stock exchange.

Hệ thống chỉ tiêu tài chính của các công ty Cổ phần sản xuất vật liệu xây dựng
niêm yết trên Sở giao dịch chứng khoán Hà Nội: Thực trạng và giải pháp
TÓM TẮT
Hiện nay các công ty cổ phần (CTCP) có niêm yết trên các thị trường chứng khoán đều công bố hệ thống chỉ
tiêu tài chính. Bộ Tài chính (BTC) đã quy định hệ thống này trong cả Quyết định 13/2007/QĐ-BTC (liên quan đến bản
cáo bạch - BCB) và Thông tư 52/2012/TT-BTC (liên quan đến báo cáo thường niên - BCTN). Tuy nhiên tính chính
xác, minh bạch, toàn diện và khách quan của hệ thống chỉ tiêu tài chính trong các báo cáo này vẫn cần phải xem xét
lại. Nói cách khác, hệ thống chỉ tiêu tài chính hiện hành vẫn tồn tại một số hạn chế do cả lý do chủ quan và khách
quan gây ra. Từ thực tế này, để cải thiện hệ thống chỉ tiêu tài chính của các CTCP niêm yết trên thị trường chứng
khoán, cần phải xác định những lý do từ bên trong và bên ngoài doanh nghiệp, nhất là khi Việt Nam hội nhập vào
nền kinh tế khu vực và thế giới. Vì vậy, nghiên cứu này sẽ tìm hiểu thực trạng hệ thống chỉ tiêu tài chính hiện hành
của các CTCP sản xuất vật liệu xây dựng (SX VLXD) niêm yết trên Sở Giao dịch Chứng khoán Hà Nội (SGDCK HN).
Qua đó, đề tài còn cung cấp cho các nhà phân tích những thông tin minh bạch, chính xác và khách quan nhằm giúp
họ đưa ra những quyết định hiệu quả và tối ưu.
Từ khoá: Báo cáo tài chính, công ty cổ phần, hệ thống chỉ tiêu tài chính, sản xuất vật liệu xây dựng, sở giao
dịch chứng khoán, thị trường chứng khoán.

1. INTRODUCTION
The financial indicators of companies
generally and JSCs particularly are benchmark

988

to assess one company’s financial situation,
“healthy” or “weak”. They are united into a
system so as to provide a picture about a
financial health of a firm to any interest person

Pham Xuan Kien

or economic entity. These indicators are used by
both insiders and outsiders and classified into a
certain group reflecting one concrete content,
such as a solvency, efficiency, or profitability.
Depending on their interest, analysts will
choose any particular content. Currently, all
JSCs listed on securities markets publish their
financial
ratios
system.
However,
the
preciseness, transparency, comprehensiveness
and objectiveness of these indicators still need
to be reconsidered. In other words, the current
financial indexes system has some limitations
due to objective and subjective reasons. As a
result, many JSCs which publish their
optimistic financial indicators are insolvent or
un-profitable. The building materials producing
companies are not exceptional. In fact, in recent
years, there has been witnessed the bankruptcy
of many big corporations both domestically and
internationally, despite the fact that last one or
two years, their financial indexes revealed no
sign of concern. This matter has reduced
investors’ trust and made securities markets
less interesting, thus it could not mobilize
capital for firms through this channel. From
this fact, in order to improve the financial ratio
system of JSCs listed on securities exchange, it
is necessary to indentify internal and external
reasons of an enterprise, especially when
Vietnam is integrating the regional and
international economy. Thanks to this
integration process, Vietnamese economy is
developing rather fast with increasing demand
of construction, for instance roads, bridges,
buildings, houses, etc. As a result, the
requirement of building materials also rises.
Many building materials producing JSCs have
been established to satisfy this huge demand
and play a crucial role in constructing process of
the country. Products of these firms are
positively contributing not only to the
infrastructure of Vietnam but also to the
building demand of each builder or household.
Therefore, this paper studies the current
financial indicator system of building materials
producing JSCs listed on Hanoi Stock Exchange
(HNX), because the number of the listed firms
of this sector on HNX dominates over those
firms listed on Ho Chi Minh Stock Exchange.

By doing this, this topic aims to provide
analysts with transparent, objective and precise
information and helps them to make effective
and optimal decisions. Besides, this study also
proposes suggestions to assisting a stable
development of JSCs and HNX.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW
In the study, Beaver (1966) found that
ratios analysis involves the use of several ratios
by variety of users- including credit lenders,
credit-rating agencies, investors and managers.
In spite of the ubiquity of ratios, little effort has
been directed toward the formal empirical
verification of their usefulness. The usefulness
of ratio can only be tested with regard to some
particular purpose. The purpose chosen here
was the prediction of failure, since ratios are
currently in widespread use as predictor of
failure. This is not the only possible use of
ratios but is a starting point from which to build
an empirical verification of ratio analysis.
According to Wilcox (1971), comparatively
little academic attention has been given to the
use of financial accounting number in
measuring risk. Several years ago Beaver
(1966) reported an empirical study of various
financial ratios as predictors of failure. Using
matched samples of failed firms versus nonfailed firms, he found that several easily
available financial ratios were good predictors
of failure, while others, probably more widely
used, were mediocre predictors. Specifically, the
ratio cash flow/total assets, net income/total
assets, total debt/total assets, and particularly
cash flow/total debt were good predictors of
failure. The last ratio had predictive value even
up to five years before the event. In contrast,
such widely used ratios as the current ratio
were of only mediocre value until the final year
before failure, and even then inferior to the
aforementioned ratios.
Financial ratios have played an important
part in valuating the performance and financial
condition of an entity. Over the years, empirical
studies have repeatedly demonstrated the
usefulness of financial ratios. For examples,

989

Financial indicator system of building materials manufacturing joint-stock firms listed on Hanoi stock exchange:
Situation and solutions

financial-distressed firms can be separated
from the non-failed firms in the year before the
declaration of bankruptcy at an accuracy rate of
over 90% by examining financial ratios. In
determining bond ratings, when financial ratios
were the only variables used, the resulting
ratings
were
virtually
identical
with
institutional ratings. There is one recurring
question with the use of financial ratios: which
ratios, among hundreds that can be computed
easily from the available financial data, should
be analyzed to obtain the useful information for
user. This study helps resolve the problem of
ratio selection by examining ratios found useful
in recent empirical studies; reconciling the
differences in the ones found useful in these
studies and categorizing them by certain
factors. There are many useful ratios so it is
necessary to identify a limited set of financial
ratios. Because, different researchers use
different ratios, therefore, result on the
usefulness of specific ratios may vary ( Chen
and Shimerda, 1981).
In the study of Banes (1987), financial
ratios were used for all kinds of purposes. These
include the assessment of the ability of a firm to
pay its debt, the evaluation of business and
managerial success and even the statutory
regulation of a firm’s performance. Not
surprisingly they become norms and actually
affect performance. The traditional textbooks of
financial analysis also emphasize the need for a
firm to use industry-wide averages as target
(Foulke, 1968) and there is evidence that firms
do adjust their financial ratios to such target.
Whittington (1980) identified two principal uses
of financial ratios. The traditional, normative
use of the measurement of a firm’s ratio
compared with a standard, and the positive use
in estimating empirical relationships, usually
for predictive purposes. The former dates back
to the late nineteenth century and the increase
in US bank credit given as a result of the Civil
War when current and non-current items were
segregated and the ratio of current assets to
current liabilities were developed. From then
the use of ratios both for credit purposes and
managerial analysis, focusing on profitability

990

measures soon began. Around 1919, Du Pont
Company began to use its famous ratio
“triangle” system to evaluate its operating
results, underpinning the modern interfirm
comparison scheme introduced in the UK by the
British Institute of Management and the
British Productivity Council in 1959. The
positive use of financial ratios has been of two
types: by accountant and analysts to forecast
future financial variables, e.g estimated future
profit by multiplying predicted sales by the
profit margin (the profit/sales ratio), and, more
recently, by researchers in statistical models for
mainly predictive purposes such as corporate
failure, credit rating, the assessment of risk,
and the testing of economic hypotheses in which
inputs are financial ratios.
In recent years there have been several
important studies which have investigated the
use of financial ratios in predicting business
failure. This has been done both from a human
information processing (HIP) point of view and
from an environment predictability view point
(e.g. Altman, 1968 and 1983; Deakin, 1972).
These studies have provided evidence that
financial ratios are useful in predicting
business failure. While some users of financial
analysis are keenly interested in the
prediction of business failure (financial
institutions being an obvious samples), others
are more interested in the non-failure end of
the failure/non-failure continuum ( Houghton &
Woodliff, 1987).
According to Laitinen (1991), financial
ratios are intensively used by several interest
groups for all kind of purposes. The positive
use of financial ratios by researchers in
statistical models has been mainly for
predictive purposes such as failure of the
firm. The studies of failure prediction are
based on the original work of Beaver (1966)
and Altman (1968). Beaver has made the most
contributive univariate analysis of business
failure. A univariate analysis involves in the
use of a single financial ratio in a failure
prediction model. Beaver (1966) analyzed
several financial ratios separately and
selected the cut-off point for each ratio so as

Pham Xuan Kien

to maximize the number of accurate
classification for a particular sample. This
technique has become known as univariate
classification analysis. However, Altman
(1968) performed a multivariate analysis of
failure by means of multiple discriminant
analysis. The main idea of the multivariate
analysis was to combine the information of
several financial ratios into a single weighted
index. Altman (1968) popularized his
multivariate model as the Z-score model.
Beaver (1966) and Altman (1968) have a
number of successors who are aiming to
improve the performance of failure analyses
in several alternative ways.

3. METHODOLOGY
The study employed a practical survey to
collect secondary data of 32 building materials
manufacturing JSCs listed on HNX. These
secondary data used in this study were financial
statements, annual statements, prospectus and
others of these JSCs in the period of five years,
from 2009 to 2014. After that, this research
mainly used a qualitative approach by taking a
comparative analysis in order to assess the
current situation of financial ratios system of

building materials manufacturing JSCs listed
on HNX.
The surveyed firms had a listed date on
HNX after the year of 2005. Concretely,
therewere 8 firms listed in 2006, 3 firms listed
in 2007, 6 firms listed in 2008, 7 firms listed in
each 2009 and 2010 and one firm listed in 2011.
Despite many differences in region, capital,
listing date and producing field, all surveyed
firms constructed their financial statements
based on one unified model and conform to
Vietnam Accounting Standard (VAS) No 21
“Disclosure in the Financial Statements”.
Beside VAS 21, MOF also issued Decision
13/2007/MOF (relating to a prospectus) and
Circular 52/2012/MOF (relating to an annual
report) which are considered as guidelines for
these JSCs to build their financial ratios
system. The listed firms with different scales of
capital are displayed in Table 1. Among these
firms, the highest authorized-capital firm is
Vicem But Son Cement JSC (coded stock is
BTS) with VND956 billion , a nearly one
hundred times bigger than the lowest Viglacera
Ha Long 1 JSC (coded stock is HLY) with more
than VND10 billion.

Table 1. Capital scale of building materials manufacturing JSCs listed on HNX
Order

Capital scale (Billion VND)

Number of quantity

Percentage (%)

1

Over 900

2

6.25

2

Over 200 and under 720

4

12.5

3

Over 100 and under 200

6

18.75

4

Under 100

20

62.5

Total

32

100

Source: Author’s survey data

Table 2. Producing field of building materials manufacturing JSCs listed on HNX
Order

Producing field

Number of quantity

Percentage (%)

1

Cements

11

34.38

2

Bricks and tiles

9

28.13

3

Steels and irons

5

15.63

4

Constructing stones

2

6.23

5

Other

5

15.63

Total

32

100

Source: Author ’s survey data

991

Financial indicator system of building materials manufacturing joint-stock firms listed on Hanoi stock exchange:
Situation and solutions

These 32 JSCs have different producing
fields as shown in the Table 2. From this table,
the majority of these building materials
manufacturing JSCs is cements producing
companies and they constitute more than 34%
and also are high authorized-capital firms.
Steels and irons producing firms account for
over 28% and stand at the second position. The
third group is bricks and tiles manufacturing
companies which accounts for 15.63%.

4. SITUATIONS AND SOLUTIONS FOR
IMPROVEMENT OF FINANCIAL RATIO
SYSTEM OF BUILDING MATERIALS
MANUFACTURING JSCs LISTED ON HNX
4.1. Situation of financial ratio system of
building materials manufacturing JSCs
listed on HNX
By re-calculating financial ratios of these
JSCs surveys with data taken from financial
statements and then compared with related
ratios which are shown in their annual reports
and prospectuses as well as confronted with
legal documents from MOF, the research found
some prominent issues as below.
Firstly, surveyed firms did not conform
totally to the legal regulations issued by MOF
except BCC and NHC. Concretely, JSCs built
their annual report according to Circular
52/2012/MOF but in fact, none of them obeyed
this circular accordingly. Some of them did not
express all four directed contents, including
solvency,
capital structure,
efficiency of
operation and profitability.
For solvency ratios. All surveyed JSCs
appled but with some differences about name
and quantity of ratios. Some companies used
the “Current ratio” instead of “Short-term debtpaying ratio” (as in Circular 52) including TXM,
CCM and DNY. Only TXM added one more
measure, the “Cash ratio”.
For capital structure ratios,. All surveyed
JSCs conformed to the Circular 52 except TXM.
However, the calculation of these ratios was not
consistent. For example, three companies, BCC,
VHL and NHC followed the formulas given in

992

Circular 52 (by taking total debts divide total
assets and owners’ equity, respectively); while
CCM and DNY used other formulation (by
taking total debts and owners’ equity divide
total
liabilities
and
owners’
equity,
respectively). Moreover, CCM and DNY
contributed ratios of assets structure (by taking
current assets and non-current assets divide
total assets, respectively).
For efficient operation ratios. All 32 firms
calculated them, except CCM and TXM. Of
these firms, only DNY did not use the name
“Inventory turnover” but “Unfixed assets
turnover” (an accounting concept which has
been deleted after the year of 2005).
For profitability ratios. These surveyed
JSCs applied in very different ways. Two
enterprises (BCC and NHC) followed all four
ratios; while three others (CCM, DNY and
TXM) only calculated three of them (ROS, ROA
and ROE); except VHL which did not present
this content.
Secondly, a typical error of surveyed firms
was a fault in calculating financial ratios. This
happened
to
all
building
materials
manufacturing JSCs. Despite using a right name
and formula of a measure, wrong calculations
still appeared in their annual reports.
Thirdly, due to unclear guidelines in
Circular 52, indicators which relate to total
assets or owners’ equity in the denominator
were not calculated by average. For example
in the formula of ROA, and ROE measures in
this circular use the concept “Total assets” or
“Owners’ Equity”. This leads to an inaccurate
calculation of listed firms. Economically, in
the numerator of ROA or ROE, a net income
is a ratio reflecting a result of a period of
time,
hence,
the
component
in
the
denominator must also be a period of time
ratio. That is why the denominator must be
formulated as an average of assets or owners’
equity. But in fact, when calculating these
ratios, listed firms often took the data at the
end of a year instead, except DNY. This really
leads to an inaccuracy of calculation.
Fourthly, some companies took only one
digit after comma of decimal number instead

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