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Exam CCNA - The smart way to study

Eric Stewart is a self-employed network security contractor who finds his home in Ottawa, Canada. Trained as a computer engineer at the Royal Military College, and later in computer science and economics at Carleton University, Eric has over 20 years of experience in the information technology field—the last 12 years focusing primarily on Cisco Systems routers, switches, VPN concentrators, and security appliances. He likes to divide his time evenly between his two great loves in the field: teaching and doing!...



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  1. CCNA Security Eric L. Stewart
  2. CCNA Security Exam Cram Associate Publisher David Dusthimer Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval sys- Executive Editor tem, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. No patent liability is Brett Bartow assumed with respect to the use of the information contained herein. Although every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and author Development Editor assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. Nor is any liability assumed for dam- Andrew Cupp ages resulting from the use of the information contained herein. ISBN-13: 978-0-7897-3800-4 Managing Editor ISBN-10: 0-7897-3800-7 Patrick Kanouse Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Stewart, Eric L. Project Editor CCNA security exam cram / Eric L. Stewart. Mandie Frank p. cm. Copy Editor Includes bibliographical references and index. Water Crest ISBN-13: 978-0-7897-3800-4 (pbk. w/cd) Publishing ISBN-10: 0-7897-3800-7 (pbk. w/cd) 1. Computer networks--Security measures--Examinations--Study guides. Indexer 2. Cisco Systems, Inc. I. Title. Ken Johnson TK5105.59.S758 2009 005.8076--dc22 Proofreader 2008038852 Leslie Joseph Printed in the United States of America Technical Editors First Printing: October 2008 William G. Huisman Trademarks Ryan Lindfield All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Que Publishing cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the Publishing validity of any trademark or service mark. Coordinator Cisco, Cisco Systems, and CCNA are registered trademarks of Cisco Systems, Inc. or Vanessa Evans its affiliates in the U.S. and certain other countries. All other trademarks mentioned in this book are the property of their respective owners. Multimedia Warning and Disclaimer Developer Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possi- Dan Scherf ble, but no warranty or fitness is implied. The information provided is on an “as is” basis. The author and the publisher shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any Book Designer person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information con- Gary Adair tained in this book or from the use of the CD or programs accompanying it. Bulk Sales Composition Que Publishing offers excellent discounts on this book when ordered in quantity for TnT Design, Inc. bulk purchases or special sales. For more information, please contact U.S. Corporate and Government Sales 1-800-382-3419 corpsales@pearsontechgroup.com For sales outside the United States, please contact International Sales international@pearson.com
  3. Contents at a Glance Introduction 1 Self Assessment 5 Part I: Network Security Architecture Network Insecurity 15 CHAPTER 1: Building a Secure Network Using Security Controls 51 CHAPTER 2: Part II: Perimeter Security Security at the Network Perimeter 87 CHAPTER 3: Implementing Secure Management and Hardening the Router 147 CHAPTER 4: Part III: Augmenting Depth of Defense Using Cisco IOS Firewalls to Implement a Network CHAPTER 5: Security Policy 185 Introducing Cryptographic Services 245 CHAPTER 6: Virtual Private Networks with IPsec 291 CHAPTER 7: Network Security Using Cisco IOS IPS 341 CHAPTER 8: Part IV: Security Inside the Perimeter Introduction to Endpoint, SAN, and Voice Security 395 CHAPTER 9: Protecting Switch Infrastructure 421 CHAPTER 10: Part V: Practice Exams and Answers Practice Exam 1 443 Answers to Practice Exam 1 461 Practice Exam 2 471 Answers to Practice Exam 2 487 Part VI: Appendixes A: What’s on the CD-ROM 499 B: Need to Know More? 503 Index 507
  4. Table of Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Organization and Elements of This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Contacting the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Self Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Who Is a CCNA Security? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 The Ideal CCNA Security Candidate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Put Yourself to the Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Exam Topics for 640-553 IINS (Implementing Cisco IOS Network Security) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Strategy for Using This Exam Cram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Part I: Network Security Architecture Chapter 1: Network Insecurity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Exploring Network Security Basics and the Need for Network Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 The Threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Other Reasons for Network Insecurity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 The CIA Triad. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Data Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Security Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Incident Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Laws and Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Exploring the Taxonomy of Network Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Adversaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 How Do Hackers Think? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Concepts of Defense in Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 IP Spoofing Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Attacks Against Confidentiality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Attacks Against Integrity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Attacks Against Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
  5. Best Practices to Thwart Network Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Administrative Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Technical Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Physical Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Exam Prep Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Chapter 2: Building a Secure Network Using Security Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Defining Operations Security Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Cisco System Development Life Cycle for Secure Networks . . . 52 Operations Security Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Network Security Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity Planning . . . . . . . . . . 59 Establishing a Comprehensive Network Security Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Defining Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 The Need for a Security Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Standards, Guidelines, and Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Who Is Responsible for the Security Policy? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Risk Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Principles of Secure Network Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Examining Cisco’s Model of the Self-Defending Network . . . . . . . . . . 73 Where Is the Network Perimeter? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Building a Cisco Self-Defending Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Components of the Cisco Self-Defending Network . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Cisco Integrated Security Portfolio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Exam Prep Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Part II: Perimeter Security Chapter 3: Security at the Network Perimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Cisco IOS Security Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Where Do You Deploy an IOS Router? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Cisco ISR Family and Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
  6. vi CCNA Security Exam Cram Securing Administrative Access to Cisco Routers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Review Line Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Password Best Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Configuring Passwords. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Setting Multiple Privilege Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Configuring Role-Based Access to the CLI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Configuring the Cisco IOS Resilient Configuration Feature . . . 101 Protecting Virtual Logins from Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Configuring Banner Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Introducing Cisco SDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Files Required to Run Cisco SDM from the Router . . . . . . . . . . 106 Using Cisco SDM Express . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Launching Cisco SDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Cisco SDM Smart Wizards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Advanced Configuration with SDM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Cisco SDM Monitor Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Configuring Local Database AAA on a Cisco Router . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) . . . . . . . . 114 Two Reasons for Implementing AAA on Cisco Routers . . . . . . . 114 Cisco’s Implementation of AAA for Cisco Routers . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Tasks to Configure Local Database AAA on a Cisco Router . . . 116 Additional Local Database AAA CLI Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Configuring External AAA on a Cisco Router Using Cisco Secure ACS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Why Use Cisco Secure ACS? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Cisco Secure ACS Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Cisco Secure ACS for Windows Installation Requirements . . . . 124 Cisco Secure ACS Solution Engine and Cisco Secure ACS Express 5.0 Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 TACACS+ or RADIUS? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Prerequisites for Cisco Secure ACS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Three Main Tasks for Setting Up External AAA . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Troubleshooting/Debugging Local AAA, RADIUS, and TACACS+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 AAA Configuration Snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Exam Prep Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
  7. vii Contents Chapter 4: Implementing Secure Management and Hardening the Router . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Planning for Secure Management and Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 What to Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 How to Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Reference Architecture for Secure Management and Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Secure Management and Reporting Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Logging with Syslog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Cisco Security MARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Where to Send Log Messages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Log Message Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Log Message Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Enabling Syslog Logging in SDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Using SNMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Configuring the SSH Daemon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Configuring Time Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Using Cisco SDM and CLI Tools to Lock Down the Router . . . . . . . 167 Router Services and Interface Vulnerabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Performing a Security Audit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Exam Prep Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Part III: Augmenting Depth of Defense Chapter 5: Using Cisco IOS Firewalls to Implement a Network Security Policy . . . . . . . . . 185 Examining and Defining Firewall Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 What Is a Firewall? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Characteristics of a Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Firewall Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Firewall Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Role of Firewalls in a Layered Defense Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Types of Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Cisco Family of Firewalls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Firewall Implementation Best Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Creating Static Packet Filters with ACLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Threat Mitigation with ACLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Inbound Versus Outbound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
  8. viii CCNA Security Exam Cram Identifying ACLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 ACL Examples Using the CLI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 ACL Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Using the Cisco SDM to Configure ACLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Using ACLs to Filter Network Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Using ACLs to Mitigate IP Address Spoofing Attacks . . . . . . . . 213 Using ACLs to Filter Other Common Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Cisco Zone-Based Policy Firewall Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Advantages of ZPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Features of ZPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 ZPF Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Zone Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Using the Cisco SDM Basic Firewall Wizard to Configure ZPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Manually Configuring ZPF with the Cisco SDM . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Monitoring ZPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Exam Prep Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 Chapter 6: Introducing Cryptographic Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Cryptology Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Cryptanalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 Encryption Algorithm (Cipher) Desirable Features . . . . . . . . . . 251 Symmetric Key Versus Asymmetric Key Encryption Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Block Versus Stream Ciphers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 Which Encryption Algorithm Do I Choose? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 Cryptographic Hashing Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Principles of Key Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Other Key Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 SSL VPNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Exploring Symmetric Key Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 DES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 3DES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 AES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
  9. ix Contents SEAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Rivest Ciphers (RC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Exploring Cryptographic Hashing Algorithms and Digital Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 HMACs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Message Digest 5 (MD5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Secure Hashing Algorithm 1 (SHA-1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Digital Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Exploring Asymmetric Key Encryption and Public Key Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 Encryption with Asymmetric Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Authentication with Asymmetric Keys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 Public Key Infrastructure Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 PKI Topologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 PKI and Usage Keys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 PKI Server Offload and Registration Authorities (RAs) . . . . . . . 280 PKI Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 Certificate Enrollment Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 Certificate-Based Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 Certificate Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 Exam Prep Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 Chapter 7: Virtual Private Networks with IPsec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 Overview of VPN Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 Cisco VPN Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 VPN Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 Site-to-Site VPNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 Remote-Access VPNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Cisco IOS SSL VPN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 Cisco VPN Product Positioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 VPN Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 Hardware-Accelerated Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 IPsec Compared to SSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
  10. x CCNA Security Exam Cram Conceptualizing a Site-to-Site IPsec VPN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 IPsec Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 IPsec Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 Constructing a VPN: Putting it Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Implementing IPsec on a Site-to-Site VPN Using the CLI . . . . . . . . 315 Step 1: Ensure That Existing ACLs Are Compatible with the IPsec VPN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Step 2: Create ISAKMP (IKE Phase I) Policy Set(s) . . . . . . . . . . 316 Step 3: Configure IPsec Transform Set(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 Step 4: Create Crypto ACL Defining Traffic in the IPsec VPN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 Step 5: Create and Apply the Crypto Map (IPsec Tunnel Interface) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 Verifying and Troubleshooting the IPsec VPN Using the CLI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 Implementing IPsec on a Site-to-Site VPN Using Cisco SDM . . . . . 325 Site-to-Site VPN Wizard Using Quick Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 Site-to-Site VPN Wizard Using Step-by-Step Setup . . . . . . . . . 329 Exam Prep Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 Chapter 8: Network Security Using Cisco IOS IPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 Exploring IPS Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 IDS Versus IPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 IDS and IPS Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 IPS Attack Responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 Event Management and Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 Host IPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 Network IPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 HIPS and Network IPS Comparison. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 Cisco IPS Appliances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 IDS and IPS Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 Signature Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 Best Practices for IPS Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
  11. xi Contents Implementing Cisco IOS IPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 Cisco IOS IPS Feature Blend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 Cisco IOS IPS Primary Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 Cisco IOS IPS Signature Integration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 Configuring Cisco IOS IPS with the Cisco SDM . . . . . . . . . . . . 364 Cisco IOS IPS CLI Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 Configuring IPS Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 SDEE and Syslog Logging Protocol Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 Verifying IOS IPS Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 Exam Prep Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 Part IV: Security Inside the Perimeter Chapter 9: Introduction to Endpoint, SAN, and Voice Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 Introducing Endpoint Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396 Cisco’s Host Security Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 Securing Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 Endpoint Attacks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 Cisco Solutions to Secure Systems and Thwart Endpoint Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403 Endpoint Best Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 Exploring SAN Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 SAN Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 SAN Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408 SAN Address Vulnerabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408 Virtual SANs (VSANs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 SAN Security Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 Exploring Voice Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 VoIP Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Threats to VoIP Endpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 Fraud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 SIP Vulnerabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 Mitigating VoIP Hacking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 Exam Prep Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418 Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
  12. xii CCNA Security Exam Cram Chapter 10: Protecting Switch Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 VLAN Hopping Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 VLAN Hopping by Rogue Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 VLAN Hopping by Double-Tagging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 STP Manipulation Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 STP Manipulation Attack Mitigation: Portfast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 STP Manipulation Attack Mitigation: BPDU Guard . . . . . . . . . 427 STP Manipulation Attack Mitigation: Root Guard . . . . . . . . . . . 428 CAM Table Overflow Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 CAM Table Overflow Attack Mitigation: Port Security . . . . . . . 429 MAC Address Spoofing Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 MAC Address Spoofing Attack Mitigation: Port Security . . . . . 429 Configuring Port Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Port Security Basic Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Port Security Optional Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Port Security Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 Miscellaneous Switch Security Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 Intrusion Notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 Switched Port Analyzer (SPAN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 Storm Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 Switch Security Best Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438 Exam Prep Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 Part V: Practice Exams and Answers Practice Exam 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443 Answers to Practice Exam 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461 Practice Exam 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471 Answers to Practice Exam 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
  13. xiii Contents Part VI: Appendixes Appendix A: What’s on the CD-ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499 Multiple Test Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499 Study Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499 Certification Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499 Custom Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 Attention to Exam Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 Installing the CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 Creating a Shortcut to the MeasureUp Practice Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501 Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502 Appendix B: Need to Know More? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503 Network Security Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503 Network Security Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 Cryptography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507
  14. About the Author Eric Stewart is a self-employed network security contractor who finds his home in Ottawa, Canada. Trained as a computer engineer at the Royal Military College, and later in computer science and economics at Carleton University, Eric has over 20 years of experience in the information technology field—the last 12 years focusing primarily on Cisco Systems routers, switches, VPN con- centrators, and security appliances. He likes to divide his time evenly between his two great loves in the field: teaching and doing! The majority of Eric’s con- sulting work has been in the implementation of major security infrastructure ini- tiatives and architectural reviews with the Canadian Federal Government, work- ing at such departments as Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) and the Canadian Air Transport Security Authority (CATSA). A Cisco Certified Systems Instructor (CCSI), he especially enjoys imparting the joy that he takes in his work to his students, as he will often be found enthusiastically teaching Cisco CCNA, CCNP, and CCSP curriculum to students throughout North America and the world. His previous work with Cisco Press has been as the development editor for two titles, Authorized CCDA Self-Study Guide: Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN) (Exam 640-863) and Router Security Strategies: Securing IP Network Traffic Planes. Eric has a lovely wife, Carol Ann, who is an accomplished music teacher, as well as two teenage children, Scott and Meaghan.
  15. Dedication I would like to dedicate this book to my wife and best friend, Carol Ann. Acknowledgments Projects like this don’t happen without the hard work and dedication of a sup- porting cast. I would like to thank the wonderful people at Pearson for asking me to write this book in the first place. Opportunities like this don’t happen often, and I am extremely grateful for the chance to write my very own book. Drew Cupp deserves special acknowledgment because his patience and attention to detail are particularly infectious and much appreciated. The technical editors, Bill Huisman and Ryan Lindfield, kept me honest. This is very important because in attempting to distill technical ideas for the purpose of an Exam Cram, sometimes the explanations of these ideas become at best oversimplified, and at worst inaccurate. Last, but certainly not least, I would like to thank my family, wife Carol Ann and children Scott and Meaghan. Without their support and encouragement, I could not have maintained the enthusiasm and creativity that is necessary to do a good job.
  16. We Want to Hear from You! As the reader of this book, you are our most important critic and commentator. We value your opinion and want to know what we’re doing right, what we could do better, what areas you’d like to see us publish in, and any other words of wis- dom you’re willing to pass our way. As an associate publisher for Que Publishing, I welcome your comments. You can email or write me directly to let me know what you did or didn’t like about this book—as well as what we can do to make our books better. Please note that I cannot help you with technical problems related to the topic of this book. We do have a User Services group, however, where I will forward specific technical ques- tions related to the book. When you write, please be sure to include this book’s title and author, as well as your name, email address, and phone number. I will carefully review your com- ments and share them with the author and editors who worked on the book. Email: feedback@quepublishing.com Mail: David Dusthimer Que Publishing 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA Reader Services Visit our website and register this book at www.informit.com/title/9780789738004 for convenient access to any updates, downloads, or errata that might be available for this book.
  17. Introduction Welcome to CCNA Security Exam Cram! The fact that you are reading this means that you are interested in the CCNA Security certification that Cisco announced in July of 2008. Cisco has done a thorough job of revamping the certification path for the Cisco Certified Security Professional (CCSP), with the CCNA Security certification being the cornerstone upon which the CCSP certification depends. Implementing Cisco IOS Network Security (IINS) is the recommended training course for CCNA Security certification. If you already hold the prerequisite valid CCNA certification, passing the 640-553 IINS exam enables you to obtain the CCNA Security certification—likely to become one of the hottest certifications in IT. This book helps prepare you for that exam. The book assumes that you already have your CCNA certification or an equivalent level of knowledge. If you do not have a CCNA level of knowledge, you should consider putting down this book and first pursuing more robust fundamental training, such as a full CCNA course book or a recommended CCNA course. And remember that CCNA is a prerequisite to CCNA Security certification. This book is a synthesized, distilled, and pared-down effort, with only enough information as is necessary to provide context for the information you need to pass the exam. This is not to say that this book is not a good read, but it is a fair reflection of the type of material that you will need to master in order to be suc- cessful with the exam. Read this book, understand the material, and drill your- self with the practice exams, and you stand a very good chance of passing the exam. That said, it’s possible that in the course of working through this book, depending on your prior CCNA Security training or on-the-job experience, you might identify topics you are struggling with and might require you to look up more fundamental resources to deal with. This book discusses all the topics on the exam and tests you on all of them, but it does not always provide detailed coverage of all those topics. Organization and Elements of This Book When designing a secure network infrastructure, the workflow moves from the perimeter of the network to the inside of the network. After the perimeter is properly secured, the security architect can turn his or her attention to securing devices on the inside of the network perimeter where the endpoints reside. This structured approach is mimicked in the basic organization of this book.
  18. 2 CCNA Security Exam Cram The chapters of this book are organized into four major parts, with each part encapsulating a major idea in the field of network security: . Part I: Network Security Architecture . Part II: Perimeter Security . Part III: Augmenting Depth of Defense . Part IV: Security Inside the Perimeter You can use this book’s organization to your advantage while studying for the CCNA Security 640-553 IINS exam because each part of the book is selfcontained. Although it is recommended that you follow the parts sequentially, there are fre- quent cross-references to content contained in other chapters if you choose to fol- low your own path through this book. Each chapter follows a uniform structure, with graphical cues about especially important or useful material. The structure of a typical chapter is as follows: . Terms You’ll Need to Understand: Each chapter begins with a list of the terms you’ll need to understand, which define the concepts that you’ll need to master before you can be fully conversant with the chap- ter’s subject matter. . Exam Topics Covered in This Chapter: Cisco publishes a list of exam topics for the 640-553 IINS exam. Each chapter of this book begins by listing the exam topics covered in that chapter. See the following “Self Assessment” element for a complete list of the topics and the chapters where they are covered. . Exam Alerts: Throughout the topical coverage, Exam Alerts highlight material most likely to appear on the exam by using a special layout that looks like this: EXAM ALERT This is what an Exam Alert looks like. An Exam Alert stresses concepts, terms, or activities that will most likely appear in one or more certification exam questions. For that reason, any information found offset in Exam Alert format is worthy of unusual attentiveness on your part. Even if material isn’t flagged as an Exam Alert, all content in this book is associated in some way with test-related material. What appears in the chapter content is critical knowledge.
  19. 3 Introduction . Notes: This book is an overall examination of basic Cisco network secu- rity concepts and practice. As such, there are a number of side excursions into other aspects of network security and prerequisite networking knowledge. So that these do not distract from the topic at hand, this material is placed in notes. NOTE Cramming for an exam will get you through a test, but it won’t make you a competent network security practitioner. Although you can memorize just the facts you need to become certified, your daily work in the field will rapidly put you in water over your head if you don’t know the underlying principles behind a Cisco Self-Defending Network. . Practice Questions: This section presents a short list of test questions (most chapters have 10 of these) related to the specific chapter topics. Each question has a follow-on explanation of both correct and incorrect answers—this is very important because it is more important to know why you were wrong. Computers are binary and will accept right or wrong as answers, but we aren’t, so we don’t! In addition to the topical chapters, this book also provides the following: . Practice Exams: Part V contains the sample tests that are a very close approximation of the types of questions you are likely to see on the cur- rent CCNA Security exam. . Answer Keys for Practice Exams: Part V also contains detailed answers to the practice exam questions. Like the questions at the end of the chapters, these explain both the correct answers and the incorrect answers and are therefore very helpful to go through thoroughly as you grade your practice exam. Knowing the topics you struggle with and why you got a question wrong is crucial. . Cram Sheet: This appears as a tear-away sheet inside the front cover of the book. It is a valuable tool that represents a collection of the most difficult- to-remember facts and numbers that the author thinks you should memo- rize before taking the test. . CD: The CD that accompanies this book features an innovative practice test engine powered by MeasureUp, including 100 practice questions. The practice exam contains question types covering all the topics on the CCNA Security exam, providing you with a challenging and realistic exam simulation environment.

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